Mercury and hippocampus

Historic facts about mercury and vaccines:

The highly toxic heavy metal mercury has for years been added to vaccines in the form of thimerosal. Thimerosal consists of 49.6% ethylmercury and was launched by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in 1929, despite the fact that adequate safety studies of the drug had never been carried out. Even today the FDA refers to a study from 1930 where the drug was injected intravenously in 22 patients with meningitis of which many died. The researchers who were affiliated with Eli Lilly concluded that the drug had only a minor toxic effect on humans.

In the 1970s, ten babies died in a Toronto hospital after and antiseptic containing Thiomersal (49.6 % ethyl mercury) was applied to their umbilical cord. In spite of this, Thiomersal was added to many of the increasing number of childhood vaccines.

New study claims that thimerosal disturb certain vital areas of the brain:

A recently published Japanese study (2012) looks at the neurotoxic effects of mercury exposure in rat foetuses. Pregnant rats were given intramuscular injections of the mercury-containing substance thimerosal. The offspring were examined 50 days after birth. The exposed group was found to have lasting chemical changes in the brain structure known as the hippocampus. Elevated levels of the transmittor substance serotonin and dopamine were observed in the mentioned brain area. Based on these findings, the study concluded:

“Analysis on postnatal day 50 showed significant increase in hippocampal serotonin following thimerosal administration on embryonic day 9. Furthermore, not only serotonin, striatal dopamine was significantly increased. These results indicate that embryonic exposure to thimerosal produces lasting impairment of brain monoaminergic system, and thus every effort should be made to avoid the use of thimerosal.”

Hippocampus and Alzheimer:

The hippocampus is part of the limbic system in the brain. This area has many different functions, including a key-role as regards short-term memory. In AD patients, this structure is often affected early and procession of short term memory is severely affected.

A link between Alzheimer’s and mercury has been found in a number of studies. It is believed that mercury plays a key role in this, in combination with various co-factors:

Thirty-two studies, out of 40 testing memory in individuals exposed to inorganic mercury, found significant memory deficits. Some autopsy studies found increased mercury levels in brain tissues of AD patients. Measurements of mercury levels in blood, urine, hair, nails, and cerebrospinal fluid were inconsistent. In vitro models showed that inorganic mercury reproduces all pathological changes seen in AD, and in animal modelsinorganic mercury produced changes that are similar to those seen in AD. Its high affinity for selenium and selenoproteins suggests that inorganic mercury may promote neurodegenerative disorders via disruption of redox regulation. Inorganic mercury may play a role as a co-factor in the development of AD. It may also increase the pathological influence of other metals. Our mechanistic model describes potential causal pathways. As the single most effective public health primary preventive measure, industrial, and medical usage of mercury should be eliminated as soon as possible.

Hippocampus and neurodevelopmental disorders:

Our ability to interpret the environment in terms of spatial perception is also related to the hippocampus. Impairment of these abilities will partly be reflected in “clumsness” bumping into things without this being related to visual problems or defects. The spatial impairment  also results in diffulties in reading and writing, in that the child is struggling to see and render letters correctly.

It is well known that mercury as well as other heavy metals plays a role according to children’s learning abilities and in terms of reading and writing difficulties in geneal.

Spatial memory serves as a foundation for reading and writing skills. Impairment caused by mercury exposure was clearly evident in this study in that the exposed group had significantly impaired short-term verbal and spatial memory, impaired sustained attention and divided and impaired motor speed.

The Exposed group had significantly impaired short term verbal and spatial memory, impaired sustained attention and Divided, and impaired motor speed.

The general tendency is related to diverse learning problems and several aspects like attention span, memory and coordination are often affected:

Mercury can cause irreversible impairment to brain function in children in the womb and as they grow.

Infants and children exposed to toxic doses of mercury have problems with attention span, language, visual-spatial skills, memory and coordination.

Mercury exposure during development is associated with cell death in the hippocampus and subsequent effects during puberty related to learning is associated. According to this study there is found a degenerative effect on these brain areas:

“Developmental mercury exposure elicts acute hippocampal cell death, reduction in neurogenesis, and severe learning deficits during puberty.  Toxicity was associated acutely with caspase-dependent programmed cell death. MeHg exposure led to reductions in hippocampal size (21%) and cell numbers 2 weeks later, especially in the granule cell layer (16%) and hilus (50%) of the dentate gyrus defined stereologically, suggesting that neurons might be particularly vulnerable. Consistent with this, perinatal exposure led to profound deficits in juvenile hippocampal-dependent learning during training on a spatial navigation task. In aggregate, these studies indicate that exposure to one dose of MeHg during the perinatal period acutely induces apoptotic cell death, which results in later deficits in hippocampal structure and function.”

A epidemiologic goverment report from 2003 based on millions of vaccinated i USA found an clear association between mercury in vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Boys seem to be more sensitive and more likely to develope various forms of mental retardation than girls:

We were initially highly skeptical that differences in the concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines would have any effect on the incidence rate of neurodevelopmental disorders after childhood immunization. This study presents the first epidemiologic evidence, based upon tens of millions of doses of vaccine administered in the United States, that associates increasing thimerosal from vaccines with neurodevelopmental disorders.

The evidence show that early exposure to mercury has serious consequences for brain development in relation to both general and more specific aspects of learning.

Hippocampus and autism:

Both the brainstructures amygdala and hippocampus can be affected in autistic children. In many cases there is seen discrepancies in both of these structures associated with autism. The structures are frequently enlarged, which corresponds to the Japanese findings indicating hyper function.

The abnormal enlargement of the amygdala and hippocampus in adolescents with autism adds to previous findings of enlargement of these structures in children with autism. This may reflect increased activity of these structures and thereby altered emotion perception and regulation. Our results could therefore be interpreted in light of developmental adaptation of the autistic brain to a continuous overflow of emotional learning experiences.

Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome in which neuropathological abnormalities have been identified in the limbic system and cerebellum.

According to this pilot study it was found changes in the amygdala in vaccinated rhesus macaque infant. The vaccines were added mercury. It was also found changes according to the receptors in this area of the brain:

This longitudinal, case-control pilot study examined amygdala growth in rhesus macaque infants receiving the complete US childhood vaccine schedule (1994-1999). Longitudinal structural and functional neuroimaging was undertaken to examine central effects of the vaccine regimen on the developing brain. Vaccine-exposed and saline-injected control infants underwent MRI and PET imaging at approximately 4 and 6 months of age, representing two specific timeframes within the vaccination schedule. Volumetric analyses showed that exposed animals did not undergo the maturational changes over time in amygdala volume that was observed in unexposed animals.

Some sources claims the pathology regarding autism is consistent with mercury exposure and toxicity:

Autism is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness, language and communication, a need for routine and sameness, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can exist as a pure element or in a variety of inorganic and organic forms and can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism. Thimerosal, a preservative frequently added to childhood vaccines, has become a major source of Hg in human infants and toddlers

There has been some controversy concerning a link between mercury in vaccines and autism. Regardless of the overall conclusion that there is no evidence of a connection, there is a wide range of studies looking at possible relationships. The general tendency points to a link between mercury and autism and hippocampal pathology – functionally as well as structurally:

Still mercury in vaccines:

Mercury in vaccines is no longer recommended, but is still added in multidose vaccines like the Pandemrix vaccine used in 2009. Retrospectively, we have seen an increase of the brain disease narcolepsy. It seems that the vaccine manufacturers are for some reason extremely reluctant to completely phase out the mercury in vaccines.

Ragnhild Madsen © 2012


Mumps vaccine failure

This article is linked and recommended by Vaccination news 2.7.2012

Mumps is part of the MMR vaccine. The vaccine is said to protect men against testicular inflammation/orchitis, although perhaps the opposite is the truth in this case. In recent years it has emerged that vaccination has shifted the proportion of vulnerable from pre-to post pubertal. It has been tried to incorporate the second dose of the vaccine but this has had no appreciable effect. Still we see that young adults aged 18-24 are affected. The disease which previously affected child – was until the late 1980`s  regarded as relatively harmless. British National Formulary wrote this about the disease as late as 1985:

“Since mumps and its Complications are very rarely serious there is little indication for routine mumps vaccination”

Falsified data on the efficacy of mumps vaccine:

According to the two virologists Stephen Krahling and Joan Wlochowski the pharmaceutical company Merck have falsified research data on the mumps vaccine. The researchers who are both former employees of Merck accuses the company of a number of factors related to false claims about vaccine efficacy – which is estimated to 95% according to fabricated data:

Apparently, the test material in the form of blood samples have been added antibodies from animals to give an impression of satisfactory immunological reactions:

Merck also added animal antibodies to blood samples to achieve more favorable test results, though it knew that the human immune system would never produce such antibodies, and that the antibodies created a laboratory testing scenario that “did not in any way correspond to, correlate with, or represent real life … virus neutralization in vaccinated people,” according to the complaint.

Merck have then used the false data to gain government vaccine contracts and to some extent market monopoly.


Mumps Outbreaks in fully vaccinated population:

The consequences of the fact that the vaccine do not have the effect envisaged – is repeated outbreaks of disease in vaccinated. Recent years such outbreaks is seen in many different of parts of the world. Typically, as mentioned, the age group affected is found among adolescents and adults with waning and weak vaccine immunity. Even 18 years after the U.S. introduced the second dose of the vaccine – we see epidemics of the disease in the mentioned group of population:

Most of the college student who got the mumps in a big outbreak in 2006 had received the recommended two shots Vaccine, According to a study raises questions about That Whether a new Vaccine or another booster shot is needed.

The outbreak was the biggest in the U.S. since shortly before states Began requiring a second shot for youngsters in 1990.

Nearly 6600 people became sick with the mumps, mostly in eight Midwest states Including Nebraska, and the hardest-hit group was college students ages 24 18:02 Of Those in That group who knew Whether They had Been vaccinated, 84 Percent had two mumps shots, According to the study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state health departments.

The same conditions are to be found in other parts of the world. Israel has experienced a peak in mumps cases, also in the age group affected adolescents and young adults. The reason that far less over 30 years is affected can be explained by this group on a large-scale has had the disease naturally and thus have adequate immunity. So far, one out of 105 cases in Israel since September 2011 resulted in testicular inflammation.

Studies confirm the discouraging results of mumps vaccination:

Various studies have looked at mumps vaccine effect in accordance with the outbreak in the population. Also here we find that the victims are fully vaccinated. Even some of the supposedly better vaccine strains seem to have depressing effect and impact rate is down to 61.1%

98% of the sick were vaccinated:

The research points out that the vaccine has so little effect that public health is by no means ensured. Repeated studies tell of “Vaccine-failure”

Mumps outbreak in highly vaccinated population. Evidence for Large Scale Vaccine failure.

In this study from 1995, 5 years after the U.S. introduced two doses of MMR vaccine it is pointed out that the term “highly vaccinated population” refers to more than 95% vaccination coverage among those affected. Mon retrieve already mentioned, this corresponds to figures from 2008 with an outbreak of 6600 affected aged 18-24 years – where 84% of those affected had received 2 doses of vaccine.

Newly vaccinated can be infectious:

Infection from newly vaccinated is a known phenomenon. A study from 2011 found that the chance was low but present. Infection was observed in family members in the form of siblings to the newly vaccinated. This phenomenon was already known in 1967 through the use of live vaccines. Infection from newly vaccinated children to fathers with weak vaccine immunity is a phenomenon we must assume to become acquainted with in the years to come.

Mumps vaccine can cause testicular inflammation / orchitis:

The mumps vaccine can also cause testicular inflammation, because the virus that is injected is alive, it can thus provide the same complications as a mumps infection. The incidence is relatively low, one can assume that one of the reasons rely on the fact that it is largely prepubertal who are vaccinated. The incidence of orchitis in prepubertal are generally low. It is likely that the incidence of testicular inflammation will increase if adult males are vaccinated to a more frequent extent.

Reasons mumps vaccination can be requested:

There are various questions that may arise according to mumps vaccination and the possible lack of common sense:

1.Britiske health officials pointed out that the disease was considered harmless to the degree that vaccination could not be defended as late as 1985.

2. Mumps vaccine itself can cause orchitis.

3. We see the issue of repeated mumps epidemics – that confirms the vaccine is in no way optimal or work as expected.

4. The result of the lack of vaccine efficacy and the observed age shift will dispose for increased risk of orchitis with potential for sterility.

5. The vaccine itself can be a source of infection, which puts low vaccine immune men at risk of becoming infected.

6. The manufacturer is accused of falsifying the blood sample material in their efficacy studies which implies a false sense of security among the vaccinated.

Ragnhild Madsen © 2012

Dr Andrew Wakefield – a new Semmelweis?

Dr. Andrew Wakefield is a trained physician, gastroenterologist and medical researcher. By 2007 he had published about 140 original medical papers. In the 1990s he and his colleagues discovered a possible association between autism and MMR vaccine:

In the following lecture Wakefield explains detailed on his research and what he has stated according to his findings:

The possible association between autism and MMR vaccination has alternately been hidden in the dark – met with strong opposition in medical circles. The need to discredit Wakefield has been enormous. These days a lawsuit is being prepared to clear him as a physician and researcher. His colleague John Walker-Smith was recently acquitted in court in relation to their joint research on autism and MMR:

Professor John Walker-Smith who carried out research in to the MMR Vaccine with Dr Andrew Wakefield, has won a court battle agaist being Struck off the medical register.

Ignaz Semmelweis

It is by no means a new phenomenon in medicine when we see that critical voices are met with resistance out of the bill. The situation was similar for Ignaz Semmelweis when he discovered the connection between childbed fever and lack of hygiene among doctors. Establishment considered it an insult that physicians should be encouraged to wash hands between delivering babies and autopsies. The consequences were fatal for postpartum women and infants. Semmelweis was unfortunately not recognized for his discovery until after his death.

Religious undertones and blind faith

Much evidence suggests that medicine and medical profession is still divinely elevated like in Semmelweis time. For a lot of people, it is inconceivable that drugs can damage in a more systematic sense. Religious faith about vaccination and its exclusively beneficial effect is often seen, unfortunately this ignorance displaces healthy science. There are strong indications that vaccines have a greater potential for adverse effects than previously thought.

Research finds possible link between autism and MMR:

Dr Wakefield’s research has been questioned. His research team discovered in the late 90`s a possible relationship between autism and MMR vaccine. Through several studies they showed that inflammation in the intestinal wall of autistic children could be related. It was also found viruses from the vaccine strain in the children’s intestinal walls and surrounding lymphoid tissues. The symptoms of inflammation in the gut and autism coincided in time with MMR vaccination. The children showed a combination symptomatology between gut inflammation and severe neurological disease in the form of symptoms like loss of language, general regression, head banging etc. The studies of Dr Wakefield et al have been replicated by other researchers,  the list of research that makes corresponding and similar findings is long:

Association between MMR and autism also seen in epidemiological studies:

Epidemiologic research also that tells us about the possible link between autism and MMR in large epidemiological studies:

“Trends in prevalence data in Denmark
suggest a temporal association Between the
introduction of MMR Vaccine and the rise
in autism. Because thimerosal was not used
in any Pediatric Vaccine in Denmark since
1992 and the Greatest Increase in autism
prevalence Followed That year, it is Likely
That one or more of the viral components or
Their Combination in the MMR Vaccine
Contributed to the reported increase item. “

The study conducted by Goldman and Yazbak (2004) is a revised version of the Danish autism study to Poul Thorsen. Thorsen said there was no connection even though the data clearly indicated otherwise. Later Thorsen has been accused of fraud:

“ATLANTA, GA – Poul Thorsen, 49, of Denmark, HAS BEEN indicted by a federal grand jury Wed charges of wire fraud and money laundering based on a scheme two steal grant money the CDC had Awarded two governmental agencies in Denmark for autism research. “

The process against Wakefield:

It is not only Thorsen practices which may be questioned. The journalist Brian Deer has been a key figure in the process towards Wakefield, a journalist with no expertise either in medicine or research. Deer has repeatedly exhibited a lack of understanding in dealing with Wakefield’s research. Besides the gross misinterpretations and confusion of the cases he has visited Wakefield’s patients under a false name:

“It has been Revealed in a letter to THE SUNDAY TIMES That Brian Deer lied to a parent WHOSE child was in The Lancet case series in order two Obtain information from here about this child and his health records. Mr. Deer “Entered home here under a false
name “and” claimed to be a health Correspondent of THE SUNDAY TIMES. “Mr. Deer was not on the staff of THE SUNDAY TIMES.”

This document outlines facts about Dr Wakefield research, and refutes Brian Deere false claims.

Wakefield goes to court against the BMJ:

Recently it was announced that Dr Andrew Wakefield is preparing a lawsuit against the BMJ:

“Andrew Wakefield the doctor who was Struck off the medical register after triggering a health Scare linking autism to the MMR Vaccine, is suing the editor-in-chief of the British Medical Journal for Defamation.”

Dr Wakefield’s case is strong after his colleague Walker-Smith recently won in court. We should not forget the huge parent organizations that is backing him. These are parents who have seen their children’s lives be ruined after a vaccination. It is unlikely that this alliance will give up before all aspects are cleared. While we wait, autism numbers continue to increase and more and more children develop neurological disorders and diseases.

It may also be mentioned that the same industry that is trying to discredit Dr Wakefield presents a rather inaccurate picture of the traditional children’s diseases as far more dangerous than they really are.

While Dr Wakefield’s battle takes place, it may make sense to think of Semmelweis work and the consequences of his observations despite the violent opposition of his time and colleagues.

General inks about Dr Wakefield:

Dr Wakefield’s original research article from 1998:

Replication and research that support Dr Wakefield:

Website with references to Dr Wakefield’s case and research:

Dr Andrew Wakefield’s book:

Links to various interviews and lectures by Dr Andrew Wakefield:

Dr Andrew Wakefield discusses autism in historical perspective:

Lecture by Dr Andrew Wakefield from Brandeis University (2011):

Dr Andrew Wakefield lectures on his research (2011):

Dr Andrew Wakefield is interviewed by Dr Mercola (10 parts 2011):

Interview with Dr Andrew Wakefield by Mike Adams (Natural News)

Interview with Andrew Wakefield by Alex Jones (Info Wars):

Other featured characters in the autism-vaccine debate:

It may be mentioned that a number of celebrities have devoted thematic attention. Recently, Donald Trump is also the media. From earlier we know about Robert Kennedy, Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey’s involvement:

Jenny McCarthy has written books: Louder Than Words (2007) and Mother Warriors (2008).

Cell lines from aborted human fetus in vaccineproduction

This article is recommended, discussed and referred to by Sanevax and holyhormones:

Some of today’s vaccines are cultivated on cell lines from aborted human fetuses. This itself promotes ethical questions, which is further reinforced by the fact that most people  have no knowledge of these circumstances. Few parents are aware when they vaccinate their children. It is unlikely that the topic is well-known among health professionals. It is reasonable to think that some people based on ethical education and religious reasons will be uncomfortable about these facts. One can question whether this issue is controversial to such degree that it would be prudent to disclose the circumstances to the patients – in this context, their parents.

Cell lines and virus strains from aborted fetuses:

Among the more commonly used cell lines we find WI-38 derived from the lung tissue of a three-month-old girl fetus. Another cell line, MRC-5 derived from lung tissue of a 14 week old male fetus. These cell lines was derived in the 1960s and 70s, but came in use in vaccines at a later date. Vaccines cultivated on these lines, is rubella (German measles), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis A and rabies.

The virus strain used in the MMR vaccine rubella-component, is also harvested from aborted fetal tissue. This strain is better known as RA 27/3 and was obtained from a fetus whose mother had rubella during pregnancy and performed an abortion because of risk of fetal damage. RA 27/3 is also grown in cell line WI-38.

(Ph. D. John D. Graben Stein 1999)

Further information about fetal cellines with links:

MRC-5: “The MRC-5 cell line was developed in September 1966 from lung tissue taken from a 14 week fetus aborted for psychiatric reason from a 27 year old physically healthy woman. The cell morphology is fibroblast-like. The karyotype is 46,XY; normal diploid male. Cumulative population doublings to senescence is 42-48. G6PD isoenzyme is type B.”

WI-38: “The WI-38 cell line was developed in July 1962 from lung tissue taken from a therapeutically aborted fetus of about 3 months gestational age. Cells released by trypsin digestion of the lung tissue were used for the primary culture. The cell morphology is fibroblast-like. The karyotype is 46,XX; normal diploid female. A maximum lifespan of 50 population doublings for this culture was obtained at the Repository. A thymidine labelling index of 86% was obtained after recovery. G6PD is isoenzyme type B. This culture of WI-38 is an expansion from passage 9 frozen cells obtained from the submitter.”

IMR-90: ”The human diploid fibroblast strain IMR-90 was derived by W.W. Nichols and associates from the lungs of a 16-week female fetus. 
The division potential, viral susceptibilities and other properties have been thoroughly studied such that the line may be considered as an alternate for WI-38 and other standard human lung cell strains. 
The cells have been reported to be capable of attaining 58 population doublings before the onset of senescence.”

WI-26 VA4: An SV40 transformed derivative of WI-26, a human diploid cell line derived from embryonic lung tissue of a male Caucasian. The cells have SV40 T-Ag but infectious virus has not been rescued.

HEK-293: cells were generated in the early 70s by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex Van der Eb’s laboratory in Leiden, The Netherlands. The human embryonic kidney cells were obtained from previously healthy aborted fetus.

PER.C6Cell line from retinal tissue of a 18 week old fetus aborted in 1985, further developed and prepared as cell line in 1995. (Page 91)

RA 27/3: ”Various strains of rubella virus were used. RA 27/3 was isolated previously in this labratory from an aborted fetus.” (Page 157)

RA 27/3Note the RA27/3 strain of rubella virus was observed to induce brain cell death in rats: The induction of cell death by the Therien strain of rubella virus (RVT), and the vaccine RA27/3 strain, was investigated in mixed glial cell cultures derived from the rat CNS. Cell death induction in Vero and rat glial cells by RVT and RA27/3 was dependent on virus replication. In both cell types and for both virus strains, cell death induction had the hallmarks of apoptosis,”

Study finds time related association between the introduction of fetal cell lines in vaccines and autism:

A survey published in 2010 claims there is an association between the use of vaccines made from aborted fetal cells and autism. McDonald and Paul found a correlation between autsime and timely introduction of these vaccines, respectively, in the years 1981, 1988 and 1995.

HV Ratajczak (2011) studied the correlation of autism and the introduction of these vaccines and also supports a possible connection. According to Dr. J Mercola (07/10/2011) this was reported by New CBS:

“That Ratajczak reports that at the same time Vaccine makers took most thimerosal out of most Vaccines (with the exception of flu shots still Widely Which Contain Thimerosal), They Began making some Vaccines Using human tissue. 

Ratajczak says human tissue is currently used in 23 Vaccines. She discuss the Increase in autism incidences corresponding with the introduction of human DNA MMR Vaccine two, and suggest the two could be linked. “

The number of 23 vaccines contaminated with aborted human fetus is also confirmed by other medical sources:

“Today, more than 23 vaccines are contaminated by the use of aborted fetal cells. There is no law that requires that consumers be informed that some vaccines are made using aborted fetal cells and contain residual aborted fetal DNA. While newer vaccines produced using aborted fetal cells do inform consumers, in their package inserts, that the vaccines contain contaminating DNA from the cell used to produce the vaccine, they do not identify the cells as being derived from electively aborted human fetuses.”

The same group og physicians claims that there could be relations between this type of vaccines and diseases like diabetes, lupus, MS and autism:

“How could the contaminating aborted fetal DNA create problems? It creates the potential for autoimmune responses and/or inappropriate insertion into our own genomes through a process called recombination. There are groups researching the potential link between this DNA and autoimmune diseases such as juvenile (type I) diabetes, multiple sclerosis and lupus. Our organization, [3] Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute (SCPI), is focused on studying the quantity, characteristics and genomic recombination of the aborted fetal DNA found in many of our vaccines.”

Cancer virus contamination in vaccines:

About the medical issues it should also be taken note of the aspect of viral contamination. In the 60`s a cancer virus was spread with contaminated polio vaccines. The story starts like this:

“In 1961, SV40 was discovered by Dr. Bernice Eddy of the National Institute of Health, Division of Biologics when she took the material used to grow polio vaccines and injected it into hamsters. Tumors grew in the hamsters. Her discovery was subsequently validated by Drs. Maurice Hilliman and Benjamin Sweet of Merck.”

As we can see from the cell lines mention above – one of the lines has antibodies against SV-40 virus although the virus was not traced:

WI-26 VA4: An SV40 transformed derivative of WI-26, a human diploid cell line derived from embryonic lung tissue of a male Caucasian. The cells have SV40 T-Ag but infectious virus has not been rescued.

Ethical dilemma:

Ethical dilemmas of this kind, can be discussed in light of many factors. That the abortions where provoked is one aspect to some people, whether there was any intention of using a tissue is a different theme, and of course a wide range of issues related to information components and aspects consent of the various parties and stakeholders. Some would like to focus on the benefits, in terms of prevention of disease and death. Others choose to emphasize the fundamental ethical principles that prevent a life of having to be regarded as a vehicle for another life. Regardless of how one views these matters – the fundamental ethical issue rest on whether one is aware that these conditions exist. If people do not know the facts – there there is no opportunity to take an ethical founded choice. For that reason, the lack of information is to be regarded as the most fundamental ethical dilemma for patients in a practical context.

Legal aspects of patient and donor information:

Patients, in this case – their parents have a legally fundamental right to receive information about drugs and treatment their children receive. Given that vaccination is a planned medical intervention there should be space receiving more complete information than presently practiced. Health professionals are also obliged to provide information as well as possessing a working knowledge of drugs they administer. Based on the controversial facts and the political and legal debate, it must be assumed that this subject holds such controversial aspects that it should not be withheld general patient information.

It may also be advisable to question aspects of consent of the patients as a supplementary matters of legal nature based on the fact that some of the abortions were performed on psychiatric ill patients.

Other intricate questions may be raised on the basis that we still in 2012 possesses legislation that fails to define and review human cell lines explicitly. There should be accounted that the use of such cell lines both in vaccines as well as general research, made its entrance already in the 1950s, in the form of the HPV virus infected Hela cell line. This donor never consented that her cervical cancer cells were immortalized in medical laboratories worldwide. It is assumed that the use of aborted human fetal cell promotes just as many controversies – both medical and ethical.

Ragnhild Madsen