Mercury and hippocampus

Historic facts about mercury and vaccines:

The highly toxic heavy metal mercury has for years been added to vaccines in the form of thimerosal. Thimerosal consists of 49.6% ethylmercury and was launched by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in 1929, despite the fact that adequate safety studies of the drug had never been carried out. Even today the FDA refers to a study from 1930 where the drug was injected intravenously in 22 patients with meningitis of which many died. The researchers who were affiliated with Eli Lilly concluded that the drug had only a minor toxic effect on humans.

In the 1970s, ten babies died in a Toronto hospital after and antiseptic containing Thiomersal (49.6 % ethyl mercury) was applied to their umbilical cord. In spite of this, Thiomersal was added to many of the increasing number of childhood vaccines.

New study claims that thimerosal disturb certain vital areas of the brain:

A recently published Japanese study (2012) looks at the neurotoxic effects of mercury exposure in rat foetuses. Pregnant rats were given intramuscular injections of the mercury-containing substance thimerosal. The offspring were examined 50 days after birth. The exposed group was found to have lasting chemical changes in the brain structure known as the hippocampus. Elevated levels of the transmittor substance serotonin and dopamine were observed in the mentioned brain area. Based on these findings, the study concluded:

“Analysis on postnatal day 50 showed significant increase in hippocampal serotonin following thimerosal administration on embryonic day 9. Furthermore, not only serotonin, striatal dopamine was significantly increased. These results indicate that embryonic exposure to thimerosal produces lasting impairment of brain monoaminergic system, and thus every effort should be made to avoid the use of thimerosal.”

Hippocampus and Alzheimer:

The hippocampus is part of the limbic system in the brain. This area has many different functions, including a key-role as regards short-term memory. In AD patients, this structure is often affected early and procession of short term memory is severely affected.

A link between Alzheimer’s and mercury has been found in a number of studies. It is believed that mercury plays a key role in this, in combination with various co-factors:

Thirty-two studies, out of 40 testing memory in individuals exposed to inorganic mercury, found significant memory deficits. Some autopsy studies found increased mercury levels in brain tissues of AD patients. Measurements of mercury levels in blood, urine, hair, nails, and cerebrospinal fluid were inconsistent. In vitro models showed that inorganic mercury reproduces all pathological changes seen in AD, and in animal modelsinorganic mercury produced changes that are similar to those seen in AD. Its high affinity for selenium and selenoproteins suggests that inorganic mercury may promote neurodegenerative disorders via disruption of redox regulation. Inorganic mercury may play a role as a co-factor in the development of AD. It may also increase the pathological influence of other metals. Our mechanistic model describes potential causal pathways. As the single most effective public health primary preventive measure, industrial, and medical usage of mercury should be eliminated as soon as possible.

Hippocampus and neurodevelopmental disorders:

Our ability to interpret the environment in terms of spatial perception is also related to the hippocampus. Impairment of these abilities will partly be reflected in “clumsness” bumping into things without this being related to visual problems or defects. The spatial impairment  also results in diffulties in reading and writing, in that the child is struggling to see and render letters correctly.

It is well known that mercury as well as other heavy metals plays a role according to children’s learning abilities and in terms of reading and writing difficulties in geneal.

Spatial memory serves as a foundation for reading and writing skills. Impairment caused by mercury exposure was clearly evident in this study in that the exposed group had significantly impaired short-term verbal and spatial memory, impaired sustained attention and divided and impaired motor speed.

The Exposed group had significantly impaired short term verbal and spatial memory, impaired sustained attention and Divided, and impaired motor speed.

The general tendency is related to diverse learning problems and several aspects like attention span, memory and coordination are often affected:

Mercury can cause irreversible impairment to brain function in children in the womb and as they grow.

Infants and children exposed to toxic doses of mercury have problems with attention span, language, visual-spatial skills, memory and coordination.

Mercury exposure during development is associated with cell death in the hippocampus and subsequent effects during puberty related to learning is associated. According to this study there is found a degenerative effect on these brain areas:

“Developmental mercury exposure elicts acute hippocampal cell death, reduction in neurogenesis, and severe learning deficits during puberty.  Toxicity was associated acutely with caspase-dependent programmed cell death. MeHg exposure led to reductions in hippocampal size (21%) and cell numbers 2 weeks later, especially in the granule cell layer (16%) and hilus (50%) of the dentate gyrus defined stereologically, suggesting that neurons might be particularly vulnerable. Consistent with this, perinatal exposure led to profound deficits in juvenile hippocampal-dependent learning during training on a spatial navigation task. In aggregate, these studies indicate that exposure to one dose of MeHg during the perinatal period acutely induces apoptotic cell death, which results in later deficits in hippocampal structure and function.”

A epidemiologic goverment report from 2003 based on millions of vaccinated i USA found an clear association between mercury in vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Boys seem to be more sensitive and more likely to develope various forms of mental retardation than girls:

We were initially highly skeptical that differences in the concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines would have any effect on the incidence rate of neurodevelopmental disorders after childhood immunization. This study presents the first epidemiologic evidence, based upon tens of millions of doses of vaccine administered in the United States, that associates increasing thimerosal from vaccines with neurodevelopmental disorders.

The evidence show that early exposure to mercury has serious consequences for brain development in relation to both general and more specific aspects of learning.

Hippocampus and autism:

Both the brainstructures amygdala and hippocampus can be affected in autistic children. In many cases there is seen discrepancies in both of these structures associated with autism. The structures are frequently enlarged, which corresponds to the Japanese findings indicating hyper function.

The abnormal enlargement of the amygdala and hippocampus in adolescents with autism adds to previous findings of enlargement of these structures in children with autism. This may reflect increased activity of these structures and thereby altered emotion perception and regulation. Our results could therefore be interpreted in light of developmental adaptation of the autistic brain to a continuous overflow of emotional learning experiences.

Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome in which neuropathological abnormalities have been identified in the limbic system and cerebellum.

According to this pilot study it was found changes in the amygdala in vaccinated rhesus macaque infant. The vaccines were added mercury. It was also found changes according to the receptors in this area of the brain:

This longitudinal, case-control pilot study examined amygdala growth in rhesus macaque infants receiving the complete US childhood vaccine schedule (1994-1999). Longitudinal structural and functional neuroimaging was undertaken to examine central effects of the vaccine regimen on the developing brain. Vaccine-exposed and saline-injected control infants underwent MRI and PET imaging at approximately 4 and 6 months of age, representing two specific timeframes within the vaccination schedule. Volumetric analyses showed that exposed animals did not undergo the maturational changes over time in amygdala volume that was observed in unexposed animals.

Some sources claims the pathology regarding autism is consistent with mercury exposure and toxicity:

Autism is a syndrome characterized by impairments in social relatedness, language and communication, a need for routine and sameness, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can exist as a pure element or in a variety of inorganic and organic forms and can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism. Thimerosal, a preservative frequently added to childhood vaccines, has become a major source of Hg in human infants and toddlers

There has been some controversy concerning a link between mercury in vaccines and autism. Regardless of the overall conclusion that there is no evidence of a connection, there is a wide range of studies looking at possible relationships. The general tendency points to a link between mercury and autism and hippocampal pathology – functionally as well as structurally:

Still mercury in vaccines:

Mercury in vaccines is no longer recommended, but is still added in multidose vaccines like the Pandemrix vaccine used in 2009. Retrospectively, we have seen an increase of the brain disease narcolepsy. It seems that the vaccine manufacturers are for some reason extremely reluctant to completely phase out the mercury in vaccines.

Ragnhild Madsen © 2012

Mumps vaccine failure

This article is linked and recommended by Vaccination news 2.7.2012

Mumps is part of the MMR vaccine. The vaccine is said to protect men against testicular inflammation/orchitis, although perhaps the opposite is the truth in this case. In recent years it has emerged that vaccination has shifted the proportion of vulnerable from pre-to post pubertal. It has been tried to incorporate the second dose of the vaccine but this has had no appreciable effect. Still we see that young adults aged 18-24 are affected. The disease which previously affected child – was until the late 1980`s  regarded as relatively harmless. British National Formulary wrote this about the disease as late as 1985:

“Since mumps and its Complications are very rarely serious there is little indication for routine mumps vaccination”

Falsified data on the efficacy of mumps vaccine:

According to the two virologists Stephen Krahling and Joan Wlochowski the pharmaceutical company Merck have falsified research data on the mumps vaccine. The researchers who are both former employees of Merck accuses the company of a number of factors related to false claims about vaccine efficacy – which is estimated to 95% according to fabricated data:

Apparently, the test material in the form of blood samples have been added antibodies from animals to give an impression of satisfactory immunological reactions:

Merck also added animal antibodies to blood samples to achieve more favorable test results, though it knew that the human immune system would never produce such antibodies, and that the antibodies created a laboratory testing scenario that “did not in any way correspond to, correlate with, or represent real life … virus neutralization in vaccinated people,” according to the complaint.

Merck have then used the false data to gain government vaccine contracts and to some extent market monopoly.


Mumps Outbreaks in fully vaccinated population:

The consequences of the fact that the vaccine do not have the effect envisaged – is repeated outbreaks of disease in vaccinated. Recent years such outbreaks is seen in many different of parts of the world. Typically, as mentioned, the age group affected is found among adolescents and adults with waning and weak vaccine immunity. Even 18 years after the U.S. introduced the second dose of the vaccine – we see epidemics of the disease in the mentioned group of population:

Most of the college student who got the mumps in a big outbreak in 2006 had received the recommended two shots Vaccine, According to a study raises questions about That Whether a new Vaccine or another booster shot is needed.

The outbreak was the biggest in the U.S. since shortly before states Began requiring a second shot for youngsters in 1990.

Nearly 6600 people became sick with the mumps, mostly in eight Midwest states Including Nebraska, and the hardest-hit group was college students ages 24 18:02 Of Those in That group who knew Whether They had Been vaccinated, 84 Percent had two mumps shots, According to the study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state health departments.

The same conditions are to be found in other parts of the world. Israel has experienced a peak in mumps cases, also in the age group affected adolescents and young adults. The reason that far less over 30 years is affected can be explained by this group on a large-scale has had the disease naturally and thus have adequate immunity. So far, one out of 105 cases in Israel since September 2011 resulted in testicular inflammation.

Studies confirm the discouraging results of mumps vaccination:

Various studies have looked at mumps vaccine effect in accordance with the outbreak in the population. Also here we find that the victims are fully vaccinated. Even some of the supposedly better vaccine strains seem to have depressing effect and impact rate is down to 61.1%

98% of the sick were vaccinated:

The research points out that the vaccine has so little effect that public health is by no means ensured. Repeated studies tell of “Vaccine-failure”

Mumps outbreak in highly vaccinated population. Evidence for Large Scale Vaccine failure.

In this study from 1995, 5 years after the U.S. introduced two doses of MMR vaccine it is pointed out that the term “highly vaccinated population” refers to more than 95% vaccination coverage among those affected. Mon retrieve already mentioned, this corresponds to figures from 2008 with an outbreak of 6600 affected aged 18-24 years – where 84% of those affected had received 2 doses of vaccine.

Newly vaccinated can be infectious:

Infection from newly vaccinated is a known phenomenon. A study from 2011 found that the chance was low but present. Infection was observed in family members in the form of siblings to the newly vaccinated. This phenomenon was already known in 1967 through the use of live vaccines. Infection from newly vaccinated children to fathers with weak vaccine immunity is a phenomenon we must assume to become acquainted with in the years to come.

Mumps vaccine can cause testicular inflammation / orchitis:

The mumps vaccine can also cause testicular inflammation, because the virus that is injected is alive, it can thus provide the same complications as a mumps infection. The incidence is relatively low, one can assume that one of the reasons rely on the fact that it is largely prepubertal who are vaccinated. The incidence of orchitis in prepubertal are generally low. It is likely that the incidence of testicular inflammation will increase if adult males are vaccinated to a more frequent extent.

Reasons mumps vaccination can be requested:

There are various questions that may arise according to mumps vaccination and the possible lack of common sense:

1.Britiske health officials pointed out that the disease was considered harmless to the degree that vaccination could not be defended as late as 1985.

2. Mumps vaccine itself can cause orchitis.

3. We see the issue of repeated mumps epidemics – that confirms the vaccine is in no way optimal or work as expected.

4. The result of the lack of vaccine efficacy and the observed age shift will dispose for increased risk of orchitis with potential for sterility.

5. The vaccine itself can be a source of infection, which puts low vaccine immune men at risk of becoming infected.

6. The manufacturer is accused of falsifying the blood sample material in their efficacy studies which implies a false sense of security among the vaccinated.

Ragnhild Madsen © 2012